Glycemic Index Food Chart

Credit to Author Doctor Win Thein ( Health Information)

    အခ်ိဳ႔ လူနာမ်ားသည္ ယင္းဂလုိးကုိစ့္အေျချပ အစားအေသာက္ဇယား (Glycemic Index Food Chart) ကုိ အစားအေသာက္ စီစဥ္မႈအတြက္ အသုံးျပဳၾကသည္။ အထူးသျဖင့္ ကစီဓာတ္ (ကာဘုိဟုိက္ဒရိုက္ဟုလည္း ေခၚသည္။ ဆန္၊ အာလူး၊ သစ္သီး၊ အခ်ိဳရည္ စသည္တုိ႔မွာ ပါ၀င္သည့္ဓာတ္) ေရြးခ်ယ္မႈအတြက္ အသုံးျပဳၾကသည္။ ယင္းဂလူးကုိစ့္အေျချပဇယားသည္ ကာဘုိဟုိက္ဒရိတ္( ကစီဓာတ္) ပါ၀င္ေသာ အစားအေသာက္မ်ားကုိ ယင္းတုိ႔၏ ေသြးအတြင္း သၾကားဓာတ္ပမာဏ ျမင့္တက္ႏုိင္စြမ္း (တနည္း သၾကားဓာတ္အခ်ိန္ မည္မွ်အတြင္း မည္မွ် ျမင့္ျမင့္တက္ႏုိင္စြမ္း) အေပၚ မူတည္၍ အမ်ိဳးအစားအဆင့္အတန္း ခြဲျခားထားျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။

    ဂလုိးကုိစ့္ညႊန္ကိန္း ျမင့္သည့္ (နံပါတ္ျမင့္သည့္) အစားအေသာက္သည္ ဂလူးကုိစ့္ ညႊန္ကိန္း နိမ့္သည့္ အစားအေသာက္ထက္ ေသြးအတြင္း ဂလူးကုိစ့္ ပမာဏကုိ ျမန္ျမန္ဆန္ဆန္ႏွင့္ မ်ားမ်ားစားစား ျမင့္တက္ေစႏုိင္သည္။

    သတိမူရမည္မွာ ယင္းဇယားသည္ အစားအေသာက္ ေရြးခ်ယ္မႈအတြက္ အေထာက္အကူ ျပဳရုံမွ်သာ ရည္ရြယ္ျပီး ယင္းဇယားအတြင္း ရွိ ဂလူးကုိစ့္ညႊန္ကိန္း နိမ့္ေသာ အစားအေသာက္မ်ားကုိ ေရြးခ်ယ္စားေသာက္ရုံမွ်ျဖင့္ ဆီးခ်ိဳအစားအေသာက္ကုထုံးကုိ ျပည့္စုံျပီဟု မယူဆရေပ။ သုိ႔မဟုတ္ ယင္းဇယားအတြင္းရွိ ဂလူးကုိစ့္ညႊန္ကိန္းနိမ့္ေသာ အစားအေသာက္မ်ားကုိသာ စားေသာက္ျပီး က်န္သည့္အစားအေသာက္မ်ားကုိ မစားေသာက္တာမ်ိဳးကုိလည္း မလုပ္ရေပ။

    အမွန္စင္စစ္ ဆရာ၀န္ ညႊန္ၾကားသည့္အတုိင္း လူတစ္ဦးခ်င္းေပၚမူတည္၍ သတ္မွတ္ေပးေသာ အစားအေသာက္ ကုိသာ လုိက္နာေဆာင္ရြက္ျခင္းသည္ ျပည့္စုံတိက်သည့္ ပုံစံျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေလးနက္စြာ သတိေပးပါသည္။

    ယင္းဇယားသည္ လူတစ္ဦးခ်င္းစီအတြက္ အစားအေသာက္ ေရြးခ်ယ္သတ္မွတ္ေပးရာတြင္ ထည့္သြင္းစဥ္းစားရမည့္ အခ်က္တစ္ခ်က္ ျဖစ္သည္။
    ဤဇယားေပၚမူတည္၍ လုံး၀ေရွာင္ၾကဥ္ရမည့္ အစားအေသာက္မ်ားကုိ ဤေနရာတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပခဲ့သည္။

    ဆီးခ်ိဳႏွင့္အစားေသာက္မ်ားႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္ေသာ ရွင္းျပခ်က္ေဆာင္းပါးကုိ ဤေနရာတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပခဲ့သည္။

  • Glycaemic Index နိမ့္ေသာအစာမ်ားကို ေ႐ြးခ်ယ္တတ္ဖို႔လိုပါမည္။
  • အစားအစာနွစ္မ်ိဳးသည္ Glycaemic Index ခ်င္းတူေနလွ်င္ အစားအစာ၌ပါ၀င္သည့္
    ကစီဓါတ္(carbohydrate)ပမာဏ ကိုႀကည့္၍ ကစီဓါတ္(carbohydrate)နည္းေသာ
    အစာကို ေ႐ြးရပါမည္။

Low Glycemic Index food (less than 55)
Foods with GI index between 55 and 70 are consider intermediate
High Glycemic Index food GI (more than 70)

Glycaemic Load
Eg. အစားအစာတစ္မိ်ဳး၏ Glycaemic Index = 70
ထိုအစားအစာ 100g တြင္ carbohydrate 40g ပါလ်ွင္
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Glycaemic Load = Glycaemic Index x အစာတြင္ပါ ၀င္သည့္ carbohdrate အေလးခ်ိန္ / အစာ၏စုစုေပါင္းအေလးခ်ိန္
= 70 x 40 / 100
= 28

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အစားအစာ Glycaemic Index Glycaemic Load
ေကာက္နွံမ်ား
ဆန္ျဖဴ (Instant) ၈၇ ၃၆
ဘာစမာတီဆန္ (Basmati) ၅၈ ၂၂
ဆန္လံုးညိဳ ၅၀ ၁၆
ေခါက္ဆြဲ (Instant) ၄၇ ၁၉
ေပါင္မုန္႔ (White Bread) ၇၀ ၁၀
ေပါင္မုန္႔ (Whole wheat Bread) ၇၇
သစ္ဥသစ္ဖုမ်ား
အာလူး (Microwaved) ၈၂ ၂၇
အာလူး (မီးဖုတ္) ၈၅ ၂၆
အာလူးေႀကာ္ ၇၅ ၂၂
အာလူးျပဳတ္ ၈၈ ၁၆
ကန္စြန္းဥ ၆၁ ၁၇
ေမ်ာက္ဥ (Yam) ၃၇ ၁၃
မုန္လာဥနီ (Carrot) ၄၇
ပဲဆန္အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး
ကုလားပဲ ၂၈
ပဲကတၱီပါ ၂၈
ပဲေထာပါတ္ ၃၁
ပဲနီေလး (Lentil) ၂၉
ပဲပုတ္ ၁၈
သစ္သီးအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး
ငွက္ေပ်ာသီး ၅၁ ၁၃
သေဘၤာသီး ၅၉ ၁၀
သရက္သီး ၅၁
စပ်စ္သီး ၄၆
နာနတ္သီး ၅၉
ပန္းသီး ၃၈
လိေမၼာ္သီး ၄၈
ဆီးသီး ၃၉
ဖရဲသီး ၇၂
သစ္ေတာ္သီး ၃၈
ႏို႔ႏွင့္ႏို႔ထြက္ပစၥည္းမ်ား
ႏို႔ဆီ ၆၁ ၃၃
ဒိန္ခ်ဥ္(Yogurt,Low Fat) ၃၃ ၁၀
ေရခဲမုန္႔ ၆၁
ႏို႔(အဆီထုတ္) ၃၂
ႏို႔ ၂၇
သၾကားအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး
ဂလူးကို႔စ္(Glucose) ၁၀၀ ၁၀
ပ်ားရည္ ၅၅ ၁၀
ၾကံသၾကား(Sucrose) ၆၈
ႏို႔သၾကား(Lactose) ၄၆
သစ္သီးသၾကား(Fructose) ၁၉
အခ်ိဳရည္အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး
လင္မနစ္(Lemonade) ၆၆ ၁၃
လိေမၼာ္ရည္္ ၅၂ ၁၂
ပန္းသီးေဖ်ာ္ရည္ ၄၀ ၁၂
ကိုကာကိုလာ ၆၃

ဆီးခ်ိဳေရာဂါေ၀ဒနာ႐ွင္မ်ားအတြက္ အၾကမ္းအားျဖင့္ အဓိကအစာအုပ္စု(၃)မ်ိဳး
ကို လိုက္နာစားသံုးသင့္ပါတယ္။
(၁) လံုး၀ေ႐ွာင္ၾကဥ္ရမည့္ အစားအစာမ်ား
ဂလူးကို႔စ္၊ သၾကား၊ႏို႔ဆီ၊ ထန္းလ်က္၊ ၾကံသကာ၊ ၄င္းတို႔ျဖင့္ျပဳလုပ္ထားေသာ
အစားအစာမ်ား၊
(၂) အသင့္အတင့္သာစားသံုးႏိုင္ေသာ အစားအစာမ်ား
ဆန္၊ ဂ်ံဳ၊ ေျပာင္း၊ အာလူး၊ ကန္စြန္းဥ၊ ပိန္းဥ စသည့္ ကစီဓါတ္မ်ားေသာ အစာမ်ား၊
ခ်ိဳေသာအသီးအႏွံမ်ား၊ ပဲအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးႏွင့္ ၄င္းတို႔ျဖင့္ ျပဳလုပ္ထားေသာအစားအစာမ်ား၊
(၃) ဆႏၵ႐ွိသေ႐ြ႕ စားသံုးႏိုင္ေသာ အစားအစာမ်ား
အသား၊ ငါး၊ အခ်ိဳဓါတ္မ႐ွိေသာ အသီးအႏွံမ်ား၊ အ႐ြက္မ်ားစသည္တို႔ကို စားသံုး
ႏိုင္ပါတယ္။

Glycemic Index Food Chart

Low Glycemic Index food (less than 55)
Foods with GI index between 55 and 70 are consider intermediate
High Glycemic Index food GI (more than 70)

GI Food Chart | Low GI Foods | Medium GI Foods | High GI Foods

Food List Rating Food Glycemic Index Negative Calorie Diet eBooksNote: In order to lose weight you have to burn more calories than you consume. We highly recommend The Negative Calorie Diet(TM) book. This book is based on scientific research and more than 100 foods requiring your body to “BURN” more calories processing them through your digestive system than the actual calorie content of the food itself. This results in your body burning up the excessive stored fat! Learn how to eat healthy and lose weight regularly by choosing the right foods with The Negative Calorie Diet™ book.

Bakery Products
*Pound cake Low 54
Danish pastry Medium 59
Muffin (unsweetened) Medium 62
Cake , tart Medium 65
Cake, angel Medium 67
Croissant Medium 67
Waffles High 76
Doughnut High 76
Beverages
Soya milk Low 30
Apple juice Low 41
Carrot juice Low 45
Pineapple juice Low 46
Grapefruit juice Low 48
Orange juice Low 52
Biscuits
Digestives Medium 58
Shortbread Medium 64
Water biscuits Medium 65
Ryvita Medium 67
Wafer biscuits High 77
**Rice cakes High 77
Breads
Multi grain bread Low 48
Whole grain Low 50
Pita bread, white Medium 57
Pizza, cheese Medium 60
Hamburger bun Medium 61
Rye-flour bread Medium 64
Whole meal bread Medium 69
White bread High 71
White rolls High 73
Baguette High 95
Breakfast Cereals
All-Bran Low 42
Porridge, non instant Low 49
Oat bran Medium 55
Muesli Medium 56
Mini Wheats (wholemeal) Medium 57
Shredded Wheat Medium 69
Golden Grahams High 71
Puffed wheat High 74
Weetabix High 77
Rice Krispies High 82
Cornflakes High 83
Cereal Grains
Pearl barley Low 25
Rye Low 34
Wheat kernels Low 41
Rice, instant Low 46
Rice, parboiled Low 48
Barley, cracked Low 50
Rice, brown Medium 55
Rice, wild Medium 57
Rice, white Medium 58
Barley, flakes Medium 66
Taco Shell Medium 68
Millet High 71
Dairy Foods
Yogurt low- fat (sweetened) Low 14
Milk, chocolate Low 24
Milk, whole Low 27
Milk, Fat-free Low 32
Milk ,skimmed Low 32
Milk, semi-skimmed Low 34
*Ice-cream (low- fat) Low 50
*Ice-cream Medium 61
Fruits
Cherries Low 22
Grapefruit Low 25
Apricots (dried) Low 31
Apples Low 38
Pears Low 38
Plums Low 39
Peaches Low 42
Oranges Low 44
Grapes Low 46
Kiwi fruit Low 53
Bananas Low 54
Fruit cocktail Medium 55
Mangoes Medium 56
Apricots Medium 57
Apricots (tinned in syrup) Medium 64
Raisins Medium 64
Pineapple Medium 66
**Watermelon High 72
Pasta
Spaghetti, protein enriched Low 27
Fettuccine Low 32
Vermicelli Low 35
Spaghetti, whole wheat Low 37
Ravioli, meat filled Low 39
Spaghetti, white Low 41
Macaroni Low 45
Spaghetti, durum wheat Medium 55
Macaroni cheese Medium 64
Rice pasta, brown High 92
Root Crop
Carrots, cooked Low 39
Yam Low 51
Sweet potato Low 54
Potato, boiled Medium 56
Potato, new Medium 57
Potato, tinned Medium 61
Beetroot Medium 64
Potato, steamed Medium 65
Potato, mashed Medium 70
Chips High 75
Potato, micro waved High 82
Potato, instant High 83
**Potato, baked High 85
Parsnips High 97
Snack Food and Sweets
Peanuts Low 15
*M&Ms (peanut) Low 32
*Snickers bar Low 40
*Chocolate bar; 30g Low 49
Jams and marmalades Low 49
*Crisps Low 54
Popcorn Medium 55
Mars bar Medium 64
*Table sugar (sucrose) Medium 65
Corn chips High 74
Jelly beans High 80
Pretzels High 81
Dates High 103
Soups
Tomato soup, tinned Low 38
Lentil soup, tinned Low 44
Black bean soup, tinned Medium 64
Green pea soup, tinned Medium 66
Vegetable and Beans
Artichoke Low 15
Asparagus Low 15
Broccoli Low 15
Cauliflower Low 15
Celery Low 15
Cucumber Low 15
Eggplant Low 15
Green beans Low 15
Lettuce, all varieties Low 15
Low-fat yogurt, artificially sweetened Low 15
Peppers, all varieties Low 15
Snow peas Low 15
Spinach Low 15
Young summer squash Low 15
Tomatoes Low 15
Zucchini Low 15
Soya beans, boiled Low 16
Peas, dried Low 22
Kidney beans, boiled Low 29
Lentils green, boiled Low 29
Chickpeas Low 33
Haricot beans, boiled Low 38
Black-eyed beans Low 41
Chickpeas, tinned Low 42
Baked beans, tinned Low 48
Kidney beans, tinned Low 52
Lentils green, tinned Low 52
Broad beans High 79

Notes: *high in empty calories **low-calorie and nutritious foods

Glycemic index

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The Glycemic index (also glycaemic index) or GI is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood glucose levels. Carbohydrates that break down rapidly during digestion releasing glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI; carbohydrates that break down slowly, releasing glucose gradually into the bloodstream, have a low GI. For most people, foods with a low GI have significant health benefits. The concept was developed by Dr. David J. Jenkins and colleagues [1] in 1980–1981 at the University of Toronto in their research to find out which foods were best for people with diabetes.

A lower glycemic index suggests slower rates of digestion and absorption of the foods’ carbohydrates and may also indicate greater extraction from the liver and periphery of the products of carbohydrate digestion. A lower glycemic response is often thought to equate to a lower insulin demand, better long-term blood glucose control and a reduction in blood lipids. The insulin index may therefore also be useful as it provides a direct measure of the insulin response to a food.

The glycemic index of a food is defined as the area under the two hour blood glucose response curve (AUC) following the ingestion of a fixed portion of carbohydrate (usually 50 g). The AUC of the test food is divided by the AUC of the standard (either glucose or white bread, giving two different definitions) and multiplied by 100.

The effect on blood glucose from a high versus low glycemic index carbohydrate

The average GI value is calculated from data collected in 10 human subjects. Both the standard and test food must contain an equal amount of available carbohydrate. The result gives a relative ranking for each tested food.[2]

The current validated methods use glucose as the reference food, giving it a glycemic index value of 100 by definition. This has the advantages that it is universal and it results in maximum GI values of approximately 100. White bread can also be used as a reference food, giving a different set of GI values (if white bread = 100, then glucose ≈ 140). For people whose staple carbohydrate source is white bread, this has the advantage of conveying directly whether replacement of the dietary staple with a different food would result in faster or slower blood glucose response. The disadvantages with this system are that the reference food is not well-defined, and the GI scale is culture dependent.

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[edit] Glycemic index of foods

GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and are commonly interpreted as follows:

Classification GI range Examples
Low GI 55 or less most fruit and vegetables (except potatoes, watermelon), grainy breads, pasta, legumes/pulses, milk, products extremely low in carbohydrates (fish, eggs, meat, nuts, oils), brown rice
Medium GI 56 – 69 whole wheat products, basmati rice, orange, sweet potato, table sugar, most white rices (eg, jasmine),
High GI 70 and above corn flakes, baked potato, watermelon, croissant, white bread, extruded cereals (eg, Rice Krispies), straight glucose (100)

A low GI food will release glucose more slowly and steadily. A high GI food causes a more rapid rise in blood glucose levels and is suitable for energy recovery after endurance exercise or for a person with diabetes experiencing hypoglycemia.

The glycemic effect of foods depends on a number of factors such as the type of starch (amylose vs amylopectin), physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food, fat and protein content of the food and organic acids or their salts in the meal — adding vinegar for example, will lower the GI. The presence of fat or soluble dietary fibre can slow the gastric emptying rate thus lowering the GI. Unrefined breads with higher amounts of fiber generally have a lower GI value than white breads.[3] Many brown breads, however, are treated with enzymes to soften the crust, which makes the starch more accessible (high GI).

While adding butter or oil will lower the GI of a meal, the GI ranking does not change. That is, with or without additions, there is still a higher blood glucose curve after white bread than after a low GI bread such as pumpernickel.

The glycemic index can only be applied to foods with a reasonable carbohydrate content, as the test relies on subjects consuming enough of the test food to yield about 50 g of available carbohydrate. Many fruits and vegetables (but not potatoes) contain very little carbohydrate per serving and thus the GI is negligible. This also applies to carrots, which were originally and incorrectly reported as having a high GI.[4] Alcoholic beverages have been reported to have low GI values, but it should be noted that beer has a moderate GI. Recent studies have shown that the consumption of an alcoholic drink prior to a meal reduces the GI of the meal by approximately 15%.[5] Moderate alcohol consumption more than 12 hours prior to a test does not affect the GI.[6]

Many modern diets rely on the Glycemic Index, including the South Beach Diet, Transitions by Market America and NutriSystem Nourish Diet [7].

Disease prevention

Several lines of recent scientific evidence have shown that individuals who followed a low GI diet over many years were at a significantly lower risk for developing both type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease than others. High blood glucose levels or repeated glycemic “spikes” following a meal may promote these diseases by increasing oxidative damage to the vasculature and also by the direct increase in insulin levels. [8] In the past, postprandial hyperglycemia has been considered a risk factor mainly associated with diabetes. However, more recent evidence shows that it also presents an increased risk for atherosclerosis in the non-diabetic population.[9]

Conversely, there are regions such as Peru and Asia where people eat high-glycemic index foods such as potatoes and high GI rices, but without a high level of obesity or diabetes[citation needed]. The high consumption of legumes in South America and fresh fruit and vegetables in Asia likely lowers the glycemic effect in these individuals. The mixing of high and low GI carbohydrates produces moderate GI values.

A study from the University of Sydney in Australia suggests that having a breakfast of white bread and sugar-rich cereals, over time, may make a person susceptible to diabetes, heart disease, and even cancer.[1]

The glycemic index is supported by leading international health organisations including the American Diabetes Association.[10]

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